Rome Empire Dateiversionen
Das Römische Reich war die postrepublikanische Zeit des alten Roms. Als Gemeinwesen umfasste es große territoriale Bestände rund um das Mittelmeer in Europa, Nordafrika und Westasien, die von Kaisern regiert wurden. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History | Peter Heather | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Rome: Roman Empire: Ancient Rome & The Rise & Fall | Roy Jackson | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf. Roman Empire Definition: the territories ruled by ancient Rome. At its height under Trajan, the Roman Empire | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und. Feb 5, - The Roman Empire under Tiberius,the Second Emperor of Rome 14 AD - 37 AD. (Photo Credit: Roman Empire History).
What Widukind's expression also conveys is that Otto the Great's imperium was visualised by him as the continuation of the Carolingian Empire of the Franks. Without unity, states cannot survive. Once a small city in Latium, the city of Rome showed a remarkable growth, both in its city's territory, as well as in the Empire. The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, Band 1. Cover · Michael Ivanovitch Rostovtzeff. Biblo & Tannen Publishers, - Seiten.
Marble portrait sculpture would have been painted, and while traces of paint have only rarely survived the centuries, the Fayum portraits indicate why ancient literary sources marvelled at how lifelike artistic representations could be.
Examples of Roman sculpture survive abundantly, though often in damaged or fragmentary condition, including freestanding statues and statuettes in marble, bronze and terracotta , and reliefs from public buildings, temples, and monuments such as the Ara Pacis , Trajan's Column , and the Arch of Titus.
Niches in amphitheatres such as the Colosseum were originally filled with statues,   and no formal garden was complete without statuary.
Temples housed the cult images of deities, often by famed sculptors. Divine and mythological figures were also given secular, humorous, and even obscene depictions.
Elaborately carved marble and limestone sarcophagi are characteristic of the 2nd to the 4th centuries  with at least 10, examples surviving.
The same workshops produced sarcophagi with Jewish or Christian imagery. Much of what is known of Roman painting is based on the interior decoration of private homes, particularly as preserved at Pompeii and Herculaneum by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD.
In addition to decorative borders and panels with geometric or vegetative motifs, wall painting depicts scenes from mythology and the theatre, landscapes and gardens, recreation and spectacles , work and everyday life, and frank pornography.
Birds, animals, and marine life are often depicted with careful attention to realistic detail. A unique source for Jewish figurative painting under the Empire is the Dura-Europos synagogue , dubbed "the Pompeii of the Syrian Desert," [n 18] buried and preserved in the mid-3rd century after the city was destroyed by Persians.
Mosaics are among the most enduring of Roman decorative arts , and are found on the surfaces of floors and other architectural features such as walls, vaulted ceilings, and columns.
The most common form is the tessellated mosaic , formed from uniform pieces tesserae of materials such as stone and glass.
A mosaic workshop was led by the master artist pictor who worked with two grades of assistants. Figurative mosaics share many themes with painting, and in some cases portray subject matter in almost identical compositions.
Although geometric patterns and mythological scenes occur throughout the Empire, regional preferences also find expression.
In North Africa, a particularly rich source of mosaics, homeowners often chose scenes of life on their estates, hunting, agriculture, and local wildlife.
More than Antioch mosaics from the 3rd century are known. Opus sectile is a related technique in which flat stone, usually coloured marble, is cut precisely into shapes from which geometric or figurative patterns are formed.
This more difficult technique was highly prized, and became especially popular for luxury surfaces in the 4th century, an abundant example of which is the Basilica of Junius Bassus.
Decorative arts for luxury consumers included fine pottery, silver and bronze vessels and implements, and glassware.
The manufacture of pottery in a wide range of quality was important to trade and employment, as were the glass and metalworking industries.
Imports stimulated new regional centres of production. Southern Gaul became a leading producer of the finer red-gloss pottery terra sigillata that was a major item of trade in 1st-century Europe.
Silver cup , from the Boscoreale Treasure early 1st century AD. Figural bronze oil lamps from Nova Zagora in Roman-era Bulgaria 1st—2nd century.
Finely decorated Gallo-Roman terra sigillata bowl. Glass cage cup from the Rhineland, latter 4th century. In Roman tradition, borrowed from the Greeks, literary theatre was performed by all-male troupes that used face masks with exaggerated facial expressions that allowed audiences to "see" how a character was feeling.
Such masks were occasionally also specific to a particular role, and an actor could then play multiple roles merely by switching masks.
Female roles were played by men in drag travesti. Roman literary theatre tradition is particularly well represented in Latin literature by the tragedies of Seneca.
The circumstances under which Seneca's tragedies were performed are however unclear; scholarly conjectures range from minimally staged readings to full production pageants.
Female roles were performed by women, not by men. Pantomimus combined expressive dancing, instrumental music and a sung libretto , often mythological, that could be either tragic or comic.
Although sometimes regarded as foreign elements in Roman culture, music and dance had existed in Rome from earliest times. Music was thought to reflect the orderliness of the cosmos, and was associated particularly with mathematics and knowledge.
Various woodwinds and "brass" instruments were played, as were stringed instruments such as the cithara , and percussion.
Instruments are widely depicted in Roman art. The hydraulic pipe organ hydraulis was "one of the most significant technical and musical achievements of antiquity", and accompanied gladiator games and events in the amphitheatre, as well as stage performances.
It was among the instruments that the emperor Nero played. Although certain forms of dance were disapproved of at times as non-Roman or unmanly, dancing was embedded in religious rituals of archaic Rome, such as those of the dancing armed Salian priests and of the Arval Brothers , priesthoods which underwent a revival during the Principate.
In the secular realm, dancing girls from Syria and Cadiz were extremely popular. Like gladiators , entertainers were infames in the eyes of the law, little better than slaves even if they were technically free.
Augustine is supposed to have said that bringing clowns, actors, and dancers into a house was like inviting in a gang of unclean spirits.
Illiterate Roman subjects would have someone such as a government scribe scriba read or write their official documents for them.
Books were expensive, since each copy had to be written out individually on a roll of papyrus volumen by scribes who had apprenticed to the trade.
Collectors amassed personal libraries,  such as that of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, and a fine library was part of the cultivated leisure otium associated with the villa lifestyle.
Literary texts were often shared aloud at meals or with reading groups. Traditional Roman education was moral and practical.
Stories about great men and women, or cautionary tales about individual failures, were meant to instil Roman values mores maiorum.
Parents and family members were expected to act as role models, and parents who worked for a living passed their skills on to their children, who might also enter apprenticeships for more advanced training in crafts or trades.
Young children were attended by a pedagogus , or less frequently a female pedagoga , usually a Greek slave or former slave. Usually, however, pedagogues received little respect.
Primary education in reading, writing, and arithmetic might take place at home for privileged children whose parents hired or bought a teacher.
Boys and girls received primary education generally from ages 7 to 12, but classes were not segregated by grade or age.
Quintilian provides the most extensive theory of primary education in Latin literature. According to Quintilian, each child has in-born ingenium, a talent for learning or linguistic intelligence that is ready to be cultivated and sharpened, as evidenced by the young child's ability to memorize and imitate.
The child incapable of learning was rare. To Quintilian, ingenium represented a potential best realized in the social setting of school, and he argued against homeschooling.
He also recognized the importance of play in child development, [n 20] and disapproved of corporal punishment because it discouraged love of learning—in contrast to the practice in most Roman primary schools of routinely striking children with a cane ferula or birch rod for being slow or disruptive.
At the age of 14, upperclass males made their rite of passage into adulthood, and began to learn leadership roles in political, religious, and military life through mentoring from a senior member of their family or a family friend.
The art of speaking ars dicendi was highly prized as a marker of social and intellectual superiority, and eloquentia "speaking ability, eloquence" was considered the "glue" of a civilized society.
In Latin, illiteratus Greek agrammatos could mean both "unable to read and write" and "lacking in cultural awareness or sophistication.
Urban elites throughout the Empire shared a literary culture embued with Greek educational ideals paideia. The curriculum in the East was more likely to include music and physical training along with literacy and numeracy.
Quintilian held the first chair of grammar. Literate women ranged from cultured aristocrats to girls trained to be calligraphers and scribes.
The woman who achieved the greatest prominence in the ancient world for her learning was Hypatia of Alexandria , who educated young men in mathematics, philosophy, and astronomy, and advised the Roman prefect of Egypt on politics.
Her influence put her into conflict with the bishop of Alexandria , Cyril , who may have been implicated in her violent death in at the hands of a Christian mob.
Literacy began to decline, perhaps dramatically, during the socio-political Crisis of the Third Century. With the total triumph of Christianity at the end of the fourth century, the Church might have reacted against Greek pagan learning in general, and Greek philosophy in particular, finding much in the latter that was unacceptable or perhaps even offensive.
They might have launched a major effort to suppress pagan learning as a danger to the Church and its doctrines.
Perhaps it was in the slow dissemination of Christianity. After four centuries as members of a distinct religion, Christians had learned to live with Greek secular learning and to utilize it for their own benefit.
Their education was heavily infiltrated by Latin and Greek pagan literature and philosophy Although Christians found certain aspects of pagan culture and learning unacceptable, they did not view them as a cancer to be cut out of the Christian body.
Julian, the only emperor after the conversion of Constantine to reject Christianity, banned Christians from teaching the Classical curriculum, on the grounds that they might corrupt the minds of youth.
While the book roll had emphasized the continuity of the text, the codex format encouraged a "piecemeal" approach to reading by means of citation, fragmented interpretation, and the extraction of maxims.
In the 5th and 6th centuries, due to the gradual decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire , reading became rarer even for those within the Church hierarchy.
In the traditional literary canon , literature under Augustus , along with that of the late Republic, has been viewed as the "Golden Age" of Latin literature, embodying the classical ideals of "unity of the whole, the proportion of the parts, and the careful articulation of an apparently seamless composition.
Vergil wrote the Aeneid , creating a national epic for Rome in the manner of the Homeric epics of Greece.
Horace perfected the use of Greek lyric metres in Latin verse. Ovid's Metamorphoses was a continuous poem of fifteen books weaving together Greco-Roman mythology from the creation of the universe to the deification of Julius Caesar.
Ovid's versions of Greek myths became one of the primary sources of later classical mythology , and his work was so influential in the Middle Ages that the 12th and 13th centuries have been called the "Age of Ovid.
The principal Latin prose author of the Augustan age is the historian Livy , whose account of Rome's founding and early history became the most familiar version in modern-era literature.
Vitruvius 's book De Architectura , the only complete work on architecture to survive from antiquity, also belongs to this period.
Latin writers were immersed in the Greek literary tradition , and adapted its forms and much of its content, but Romans regarded satire as a genre in which they surpassed the Greeks.
Horace wrote verse satires before fashioning himself as an Augustan court poet, and the early Principate also produced the satirists Persius and Juvenal.
The poetry of Juvenal offers a lively curmudgeon's perspective on urban society. The period from the mid-1st century through the mid-2nd century has conventionally been called the "Silver Age" of Latin literature.
Under Nero, disillusioned writers reacted to Augustanism. Seneca and Lucan were from Hispania, as was the later epigrammatist and keen social observer Martial , who expressed his pride in his Celtiberian heritage.
The so-called "Silver Age" produced several distinguished writers, including the encyclopedist Pliny the Elder ; his nephew, known as Pliny the Younger ; and the historian Tacitus.
The Natural History of the elder Pliny, who died during disaster relief efforts in the wake of the eruption of Vesuvius , is a vast collection on flora and fauna, gems and minerals, climate, medicine, freaks of nature, works of art, and antiquarian lore.
Tacitus's reputation as a literary artist matches or exceeds his value as a historian;  his stylistic experimentation produced "one of the most powerful of Latin prose styles.
Other major Greek authors of the Empire include the biographer and antiquarian Plutarch , the geographer Strabo , and the rhetorician and satirist Lucian.
Popular Greek romance novels were part of the development of long-form fiction works, represented in Latin by the Satyricon of Petronius and The Golden Ass of Apuleius.
From the 2nd to the 4th centuries, the Christian authors who would become the Latin Church Fathers were in active dialogue with the Classical tradition , within which they had been educated.
Tertullian , a convert to Christianity from Roman Africa , was the contemporary of Apuleius and one of the earliest prose authors to establish a distinctly Christian voice.
After the conversion of Constantine , Latin literature is dominated by the Christian perspective. In the late 4th century, Jerome produced the Latin translation of the Bible that became authoritative as the Vulgate.
Augustine , another of the Church Fathers from the province of Africa, has been called "one of the most influential writers of western culture", and his Confessions is sometimes considered the first autobiography of Western literature.
In The City of God against the Pagans , Augustine builds a vision of an eternal, spiritual Rome, a new imperium sine fine that will outlast the collapsing Empire.
In contrast to the unity of Classical Latin, the literary esthetic of late antiquity has a tessellated quality that has been compared to the mosaics characteristic of the period.
Ausonius d. The imperial panegyrist Claudian d. Prudentius d. His poetry and collected letters offer a unique view of life in late Roman Gaul from the perspective of a man who "survived the end of his world".
Religion in the Roman Empire encompassed the practices and beliefs the Romans regarded as their own, as well as the many cults imported to Rome or practiced by peoples throughout the provinces.
The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety pietas in maintaining good relations with the gods pax deorum.
The archaic religion believed to have been handed down from the earliest kings of Rome was the foundation of the mos maiorum , "the way of the ancestors" or "tradition", viewed as central to Roman identity.
There was no principle analogous to " separation of church and state ". The priesthoods of the state religion were filled from the same social pool of men who held public office, and in the Imperial era, the Pontifex Maximus was the emperor.
Roman religion was practical and contractual, based on the principle of do ut des , "I give that you might give. For ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life.
Neighbourhood shrines and sacred places such as springs and groves dotted the city. Apuleius 2nd century described the everyday quality of religion in observing how people who passed a cult place might make a vow or a fruit offering, or merely sit for a while.
In the Imperial era, as many as days of the year were devoted to religious festivals and games ludi. In the wake of the Republic's collapse , state religion had adapted to support the new regime of the emperors.
As the first Roman emperor, Augustus justified the novelty of one-man rule with a vast programme of religious revivalism and reform.
Public vows formerly made for the security of the republic now were directed at the wellbeing of the emperor.
So-called "emperor worship" expanded on a grand scale the traditional Roman veneration of the ancestral dead and of the Genius , the divine tutelary of every individual.
Upon death, an emperor could be made a state divinity divus by vote of the Senate. Imperial cult , influenced by Hellenistic ruler cult , became one of the major ways Rome advertised its presence in the provinces and cultivated shared cultural identity and loyalty throughout the Empire.
Cultural precedent in the Eastern provinces facilitated a rapid dissemination of Imperial cult, extending as far as the Augustan military settlement at Najran , in present-day Saudi Arabia.
This was the context for Rome's conflict with Christianity , which Romans variously regarded as a form of atheism and novel superstitio.
The Romans are known for the great number of deities they honoured, a capacity that earned the mockery of early Christian polemicists.
Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the side-by-side worship of local and Roman deities, including dedications made by Romans to local gods.
Because Romans had never been obligated to cultivate one god or one cult only, religious tolerance was not an issue in the sense that it is for competing monotheistic systems.
Mystery religions , which offered initiates salvation in the afterlife, were a matter of personal choice for an individual, practiced in addition to carrying on one's family rites and participating in public religion.
The mysteries, however, involved exclusive oaths and secrecy, conditions that conservative Romans viewed with suspicion as characteristic of " magic ", conspiracy coniuratio , and subversive activity.
Sporadic and sometimes brutal attempts were made to suppress religionists who seemed to threaten traditional morality and unity.
In Gaul, the power of the druids was checked, first by forbidding Roman citizens to belong to the order, and then by banning druidism altogether.
At the same time, however, Celtic traditions were reinterpreted interpretatio romana within the context of Imperial theology, and a new Gallo-Roman religion coalesced, with its capital at the Sanctuary of the Three Gauls in Lugdunum present-day Lyon, France.
The sanctuary established precedent for Western cult as a form of Roman-provincial identity. The monotheistic rigour of Judaism posed difficulties for Roman policy that led at times to compromise and the granting of special exemptions.
Tertullian noted that the Jewish religion, unlike that of the Christians, was considered a religio licita , "legitimate religion. When Caligula wanted to place a golden statue of his deified self in the Temple in Jerusalem , the potential sacrilege and likely war were prevented only by his timely death.
The religion gradually spread out of Jerusalem , initially establishing major bases in first Antioch , then Alexandria , and over time throughout the Empire as well as beyond.
Imperially authorized persecutions were limited and sporadic, with martyrdoms occurring most often under the authority of local officials.
The first persecution by an emperor occurred under Nero, and was confined to the city of Rome. A surviving letter from Pliny the Younger , governor of Bithynia , to the emperor Trajan describes his persecution and executions of Christians.
In the early 4th century, Constantine I became the first emperor to convert to Christianity. During the rest of the fourth century Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire.
The emperor Julian , under the influence of his adviser Mardonius made a short-lived attempt to revive traditional and Hellenistic religion and to affirm the special status of Judaism, but in Edict of Thessalonica , under Theodosius I Christianity became the official state church of the Roman Empire , to the exclusion of all others.
From the 2nd century onward, the Church Fathers had begun to condemn the diverse religions practiced throughout the Empire collectively as "pagan.
Christian heretics as well as non-Christians were subject to exclusion from public life or persecution, but Rome's original religious hierarchy and many aspects of its ritual influenced Christian forms,   and many pre-Christian beliefs and practices survived in Christian festivals and local traditions.
Several states claimed to be the Roman Empire's successors after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
After the fall of Constantinople , the Russian Tsardom , as inheritor of the Byzantine Empire's Orthodox Christian tradition, counted itself the Third Rome Constantinople having been the second.
These concepts are known as Translatio imperii. In the medieval West, "Roman" came to mean the church and the Pope of Rome.
The Greek form Romaioi remained attached to the Greek-speaking Christian population of the Eastern Roman Empire , and is still used by Greeks in addition to their common appellation.
The Roman Empire's territorial legacy of controlling the Italian peninsula would influence Italian nationalism and the unification of Italy Risorgimento in In the United States , the founders were educated in the classical tradition ,  and used classical models for landmarks and buildings in Washington, D.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Roman Empire disambiguation. Vexillum with the imperial aquila.
The Roman Empire in AD at its greatest extent, the time of Trajan 's death with its vassals in pink . Main article: History of the Roman Empire.
See also: Campaign history of the Roman military and Roman Kingdom. Main article: Roman Republic. Main article: Pax Romana.
Main article: Fall of the Western Roman Empire. See also: Barbarian kingdoms and Byzantine Empire.
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September Main article: Languages of the Roman Empire. Dendera , Egypt. Further information: Ancient Roman society. Main articles: Status in Roman legal system and Roman citizenship.
Main article: Women in ancient Rome. Main article: Slavery in ancient Rome. Main article: Constitution of the Roman Empire.
See also: Roman emperor and Senate of the Roman Empire. Main articles: Imperial Roman army and Structural history of the Roman military.
Main article: Roman law. Roman portraiture frescos from Pompeii , 1st century AD, depicting two different men wearing laurel wreaths , one holding the rotulus blondish figure, left , the other a volumen brunet figure, right , both made of papyrus.
Main article: Roman economy. See also: Roman currency and Roman finance. Main article: Roman metallurgy. See also: Mining in Roman Britain.
See also: Cursus publicus. Main articles: Ancient Roman architecture , Roman engineering , and Roman technology. Main articles: Culture of ancient Rome and Agriculture in ancient Rome.
Main article: Food and dining in the Roman Empire. See also: Grain supply to the city of Rome and Ancient Rome and wine.
See also: Ludi , Chariot racing , and Gladiator. Main article: Clothing in ancient Rome. Claudius wearing an early Imperial toga see a later, more structured toga above , and the pallium as worn by a priest of Serapis ,  sometimes identified as the emperor Julian.
Main article: Roman art. Main article: Roman portraiture. Two portraits circa AD: the empress Vibia Sabina left ; and the Antinous Mondragone , one of the abundant likenesses of Hadrian's famously beautiful male companion Antinous.
Main article: Roman sculpture. Main article: Ancient Roman sarcophagi. Main article: Roman mosaic. See also: Ancient Roman pottery and Roman glass.
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April Main article: Education in ancient Rome. Main article: Latin literature. See also: Roman historiography , Church Fathers , and Latin poetry.
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Res publica means Roman "commonwealth" and can refer to both the Republican and the Imperial eras. Imperium Romanum or " Romanorum " refers to the territorial extent of Roman authority.
The term Romania , initially a colloquial term for the empire's territory as well as a collective name for its inhabitants, appears in Greek and Latin sources from the 4th century onward and was eventually carried over to the Eastern Roman Empire see R.
The Empire of Nicaea is considered [ by whom? Prices and values are usually expressed in sesterces; see Currency and banking for currency denominations by period.
In this sense, it could be argued that a "Roman" Empire survived until the early 20th century. See the following: Roy, Kaushik Bloomsbury Studies in Military History.
London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Retrieved 4 January After the capture of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
Augustine , however, distinguished between the secular and eternal "Rome" in The City of God. See also J. Sherwin-White Roman Citizenship.
Oxford University Press. In the form of legal marriage called conubium, the father's legal status determined the child's, but conubium required that both spouses be free citizens.
A soldier, for instance, was banned from marrying while in service, but if he formed a long-term union with a local woman while stationed in the provinces, he could marry her legally after he was discharged, and any children they had would be considered the offspring of citizens—in effect granting the woman retroactive citizenship.
The ban was in place from the time of Augustus until it was rescinded by Septimius Severus in AD.
See McGinn, Thomas A. Transactions of the American Philological Association. University of Chicago Press. Senators could not possess the "public horse.
Strabo 3. The college of centonarii is an elusive topic in scholarship, since they are also widely attested as urban firefighters; see Jinyu Liu Collegia Centonariorum: The Guilds of Textile Dealers in the Roman West.
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Quintilian uses the metaphor acuere ingenium, "to sharpen talent," as well as agricultural metaphors.
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Marshall, Anthony J. Millar, Fergus Mommsen, Theodore . During Jesus' life, the Romans, who were pagans , ruled his country.
Later, several emperors tried to destroy Christianity but they did not succeed. By AD the emperor Galerius allowed people freedom to follow Christianity , and the next year, a general , Constantine , became emperor and converted to Christianity.
The city of Rome was taken over several times by barbarians , notably in AD when the Goths sacked the city looting. The Roman Empire would last another 1, years as the Byzantine Empire in the east.
The main coin of the Roman Empire was the silver denarius. Later denarii were smaller. Various reasons have been given for the fall of Rome.
Chief among them was in his opinion was the effect of Christianity on the ability of the Empire to defend itself militarily. Other historians blame the unstable system of leadership.
In a year period, only 2 out of 22 emperors died a natural death. Most of the emperors were assassinated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Roman Empire. Imperial aquila. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, AD, the time of Trajan 's death with its vassals in pink.
The Roman Empire: Roots of Imperialism. Pluto Press. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed: revised edition.
Regions east of the Euphrates river were held only in the years — Social Science History. Duke University Press.
Population and Development Review. Journal of world-systems research. Retrieved 6 February The Empire stops here: a journey along the frontiers of the Roman World.
London: Pimlico. The Roman Empire: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. Cambridge University Press.
CS1 maint: uses editors parameter link. Res publica means Roman "commonwealth" and can refer to both the Republican and the Imperial eras.
Imperium Romanum or " Romanorum " refers to the territorial extent of Roman authority. The term Romania , initially a colloquial term for the empire's territory as well as a collective name for its inhabitants, appears in Greek and Latin sources from the 4th century onward and was eventually carried over to the Eastern Roman Empire see R.
The Empire of Nicaea is considered the legitimate continuation of the Roman Empire because it managed to re-take Constantinople.
Prices and values are usually expressed in sesterces; see Currency and banking for currency denominations by period. Category : Roman Empire.
Hidden categories: CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Articles containing Latin-language text Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters.
Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Change Change source View history. Wikimedia Commons. Vexillum Imperial aquila.
Semi-elective , functionally absolute monarchy. Augustus first. Theodosius I [n 3]. Julius Nepos [n 4]. Constantine VI [n 5]. Constantine XI [n 6].
Classical era to Late Middle Ages. Sestertius , [n 7] Aureus , Solidus , Nomisma. Preceded by.